The first session was just a regular massage with no visual cues and was not reported in the analysis. The researchers stated that it “served to establish a therapeutic relationship.” The visuals include: 1) an image of a book against a white background; 2) a photo of the subject’s own back with the therapist’s hands on the back right before the massage started; 3) a video of someone else getting a back massage from a bird’s-eye view where the therapist begins on the side of the back opposite from what is shown in the video; 4) a real-time video of the subject receiving a massage; 5) nothing — the subject had his or her eyes closed.
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